# Structured Streaming + Kafka Integration Guide (Kafka broker version 0.10.0 or higher)

Structured Streaming integration for Kafka 0.10 to read data from and write data to Kafka.

For Scala/Java applications using SBT/Maven project definitions, link your application with the following artifact:

groupId = org.apache.spark
artifactId = spark-sql-kafka-0-10_2.12
version = 3.0.0-preview


Please note that to use the headers functionality, your Kafka client version should be version 0.11.0.0 or up.

For Python applications, you need to add this above library and its dependencies when deploying your application. See the Deploying subsection below.

For experimenting on spark-shell, you need to add this above library and its dependencies too when invoking spark-shell. Also, see the Deploying subsection below.

### Creating a Kafka Source for Batch Queries

If you have a use case that is better suited to batch processing, you can create a Dataset/DataFrame for a defined range of offsets.

Each row in the source has the following schema:

ColumnType
key binary
value binary
topic string
partition int
offset long
timestamp timestamp
timestampType int

The following options must be set for the Kafka source for both batch and streaming queries.

Optionvaluemeaning
assign json string {"topicA":[0,1],"topicB":[2,4]} Specific TopicPartitions to consume. Only one of "assign", "subscribe" or "subscribePattern" options can be specified for Kafka source.
subscribe A comma-separated list of topics The topic list to subscribe. Only one of "assign", "subscribe" or "subscribePattern" options can be specified for Kafka source.
subscribePattern Java regex string The pattern used to subscribe to topic(s). Only one of "assign, "subscribe" or "subscribePattern" options can be specified for Kafka source.
kafka.bootstrap.servers A comma-separated list of host:port The Kafka "bootstrap.servers" configuration.

The following configurations are optional:

</tr> </table> ### Consumer Caching It's time-consuming to initialize Kafka consumers, especially in streaming scenarios where processing time is a key factor. Because of this, Spark pools Kafka consumers on executors, by leveraging Apache Commons Pool. The caching key is built up from the following information: * Topic name * Topic partition * Group ID The following properties are available to configure the consumer pool:
Optionvaluedefaultquery typemeaning
startingOffsetsByTimestamp json string """ {"topicA":{"0": 1000, "1": 1000}, "topicB": {"0": 2000, "1": 2000}} """ none (the value of startingOffsets will apply)</td> streaming and batch The start point of timestamp when a query is started, a json string specifying a starting timestamp for each TopicPartition. The returned offset for each partition is the earliest offset whose timestamp is greater than or equal to the given timestamp in the corresponding partition. If the matched offset doesn't exist, the query will fail immediately to prevent unintended read from such partition. (This is a kind of limitation as of now, and will be addressed in near future.)

Spark simply passes the timestamp information to KafkaConsumer.offsetsForTimes, and doesn't interpret or reason about the value.

For more details on KafkaConsumer.offsetsForTimes, please refer javadoc for details.

Also the meaning of timestamp here can be vary according to Kafka configuration (log.message.timestamp.type): please refer Kafka documentation for further details.

Note: This option requires Kafka 0.10.1.0 or higher.

Note2: startingOffsetsByTimestamp takes precedence over startingOffsets.

Note3: For streaming queries, this only applies when a new query is started, and that resuming will always pick up from where the query left off. Newly discovered partitions during a query will start at earliest.

startingOffsets "earliest", "latest" (streaming only), or json string """ {"topicA":{"0":23,"1":-1},"topicB":{"0":-2}} """ "latest" for streaming, "earliest" for batch streaming and batch The start point when a query is started, either "earliest" which is from the earliest offsets, "latest" which is just from the latest offsets, or a json string specifying a starting offset for each TopicPartition. In the json, -2 as an offset can be used to refer to earliest, -1 to latest. Note: For batch queries, latest (either implicitly or by using -1 in json) is not allowed. For streaming queries, this only applies when a new query is started, and that resuming will always pick up from where the query left off. Newly discovered partitions during a query will start at earliest.
endingOffsetsByTimestamp json string """ {"topicA":{"0": 1000, "1": 1000}, "topicB": {"0": 2000, "1": 2000}} """ latest batch query The end point when a batch query is ended, a json string specifying an ending timesamp for each TopicPartition. The returned offset for each partition is the earliest offset whose timestamp is greater than or equal to the given timestamp in the corresponding partition. If the matched offset doesn't exist, the offset will be set to latest.

Spark simply passes the timestamp information to KafkaConsumer.offsetsForTimes, and doesn't interpret or reason about the value.

For more details on KafkaConsumer.offsetsForTimes, please refer javadoc for details.

Also the meaning of timestamp here can be vary according to Kafka configuration (log.message.timestamp.type): please refer Kafka documentation for further details.

Note: This option requires Kafka 0.10.1.0 or higher.

Note2: endingOffsetsByTimestamp takes precedence over endingOffsets.

endingOffsets latest or json string {"topicA":{"0":23,"1":-1},"topicB":{"0":-1}} latest batch query The end point when a batch query is ended, either "latest" which is just referred to the latest, or a json string specifying an ending offset for each TopicPartition. In the json, -1 as an offset can be used to refer to latest, and -2 (earliest) as an offset is not allowed.
failOnDataLoss true or false true streaming and batch Whether to fail the query when it's possible that data is lost (e.g., topics are deleted, or offsets are out of range). This may be a false alarm. You can disable it when it doesn't work as you expected.
kafkaConsumer.pollTimeoutMs long 512 streaming and batch The timeout in milliseconds to poll data from Kafka in executors.
fetchOffset.numRetries int 3 streaming and batch Number of times to retry before giving up fetching Kafka offsets.
fetchOffset.retryIntervalMs long 10 streaming and batch milliseconds to wait before retrying to fetch Kafka offsets
maxOffsetsPerTrigger long none streaming and batch Rate limit on maximum number of offsets processed per trigger interval. The specified total number of offsets will be proportionally split across topicPartitions of different volume.
minPartitions int none streaming and batch Desired minimum number of partitions to read from Kafka. By default, Spark has a 1-1 mapping of topicPartitions to Spark partitions consuming from Kafka. If you set this option to a value greater than your topicPartitions, Spark will divvy up large Kafka partitions to smaller pieces. Please note that this configuration is like a hint: the number of Spark tasks will be approximately minPartitions. It can be less or more depending on rounding errors or Kafka partitions that didn't receive any new data.
groupIdPrefix string spark-kafka-source streaming and batch Prefix of consumer group identifiers (group.id) that are generated by structured streaming queries. If "kafka.group.id" is set, this option will be ignored.
kafka.group.id string none streaming and batch The Kafka group id to use in Kafka consumer while reading from Kafka. Use this with caution. By default, each query generates a unique group id for reading data. This ensures that each Kafka source has its own consumer group that does not face interference from any other consumer, and therefore can read all of the partitions of its subscribed topics. In some scenarios (for example, Kafka group-based authorization), you may want to use a specific authorized group id to read data. You can optionally set the group id. However, do this with extreme caution as it can cause unexpected behavior. Concurrently running queries (both, batch and streaming) or sources with the same group id are likely interfere with each other causing each query to read only part of the data. This may also occur when queries are started/restarted in quick succession. To minimize such issues, set the Kafka consumer session timeout (by setting option "kafka.session.timeout.ms") to be very small. When this is set, option "groupIdPrefix" will be ignored.
includeHeaders boolean false streaming and batch Whether to include the Kafka headers in the row.
Property NameDefaultMeaning
spark.kafka.consumer.cache.capacity The maximum number of consumers cached. Please note that it's a soft limit. 64
spark.kafka.consumer.cache.timeout The minimum amount of time a consumer may sit idle in the pool before it is eligible for eviction by the evictor. 5m (5 minutes)
spark.kafka.consumer.cache.evictorThreadRunInterval The interval of time between runs of the idle evictor thread for consumer pool. When non-positive, no idle evictor thread will be run. 1m (1 minutes)
spark.kafka.consumer.cache.jmx.enable Enable or disable JMX for pools created with this configuration instance. Statistics of the pool are available via JMX instance. The prefix of JMX name is set to "kafka010-cached-simple-kafka-consumer-pool". false
The size of the pool is limited by spark.kafka.consumer.cache.capacity, but it works as "soft-limit" to not block Spark tasks. Idle eviction thread periodically removes consumers which are not used longer than given timeout. If this threshold is reached when borrowing, it tries to remove the least-used entry that is currently not in use. If it cannot be removed, then the pool will keep growing. In the worst case, the pool will grow to the max number of concurrent tasks that can run in the executor (that is, number of task slots). If a task fails for any reason, the new task is executed with a newly created Kafka consumer for safety reasons. At the same time, we invalidate all consumers in pool which have same caching key, to remove consumer which was used in failed execution. Consumers which any other tasks are using will not be closed, but will be invalidated as well when they are returned into pool. Along with consumers, Spark pools the records fetched from Kafka separately, to let Kafka consumers stateless in point of Spark's view, and maximize the efficiency of pooling. It leverages same cache key with Kafka consumers pool. Note that it doesn't leverage Apache Commons Pool due to the difference of characteristics. The following properties are available to configure the fetched data pool:
Property NameDefaultMeaning
spark.kafka.consumer.fetchedData.cache.timeout The minimum amount of time a fetched data may sit idle in the pool before it is eligible for eviction by the evictor. 5m (5 minutes)
spark.kafka.consumer.fetchedData.cache.evictorThreadRunInterval The interval of time between runs of the idle evictor thread for fetched data pool. When non-positive, no idle evictor thread will be run. 1m (1 minutes)
## Writing Data to Kafka Here, we describe the support for writing Streaming Queries and Batch Queries to Apache Kafka. Take note that Apache Kafka only supports at least once write semantics. Consequently, when writing---either Streaming Queries or Batch Queries---to Kafka, some records may be duplicated; this can happen, for example, if Kafka needs to retry a message that was not acknowledged by a Broker, even though that Broker received and wrote the message record. Structured Streaming cannot prevent such duplicates from occurring due to these Kafka write semantics. However, if writing the query is successful, then you can assume that the query output was written at least once. A possible solution to remove duplicates when reading the written data could be to introduce a primary (unique) key that can be used to perform de-duplication when reading. The Dataframe being written to Kafka should have the following columns in schema:
ColumnType
key (optional) string or binary
value (required) string or binary
topic (*optional) string
partition (optional) int
\* The topic column is required if the "topic" configuration option is not specified.
The value column is the only required option. If a key column is not specified then a null valued key column will be automatically added (see Kafka semantics on how null valued key values are handled). If a topic column exists then its value is used as the topic when writing the given row to Kafka, unless the "topic" configuration option is set i.e., the "topic" configuration option overrides the topic column. If a "partition" column is not specified (or its value is null) then the partition is calculated by the Kafka producer. A Kafka partitioner can be specified in Spark by setting the kafka.partitioner.class option. If not present, Kafka default partitioner will be used. The following options must be set for the Kafka sink for both batch and streaming queries.
Optionvaluemeaning
kafka.bootstrap.servers A comma-separated list of host:port The Kafka "bootstrap.servers" configuration.
The following configurations are optional:
Optionvaluedefaultquery typemeaning
topic string none streaming and batch Sets the topic that all rows will be written to in Kafka. This option overrides any topic column that may exist in the data.
includeHeaders boolean false streaming and batch Whether to include the Kafka headers in the row.
### Creating a Kafka Sink for Streaming Queries
### Writing the output of Batch Queries to Kafka
## Kafka Specific Configurations Kafka's own configurations can be set via DataStreamReader.option with kafka. prefix, e.g, stream.option("kafka.bootstrap.servers", "host:port"). For possible kafka parameters, see [Kafka consumer config docs](http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html#newconsumerconfigs) for parameters related to reading data, and [Kafka producer config docs](http://kafka.apache.org/documentation/#producerconfigs) for parameters related to writing data. Note that the following Kafka params cannot be set and the Kafka source or sink will throw an exception: - **group.id**: Kafka source will create a unique group id for each query automatically. The user can set the prefix of the automatically generated group.id's via the optional source option groupIdPrefix, default value is "spark-kafka-source". You can also set "kafka.group.id" to force Spark to use a special group id, however, please read warnings for this option and use it with caution. - **auto.offset.reset**: Set the source option startingOffsets to specify where to start instead. Structured Streaming manages which offsets are consumed internally, rather than rely on the kafka Consumer to do it. This will ensure that no data is missed when new topics/partitions are dynamically subscribed. Note that startingOffsets only applies when a new streaming query is started, and that resuming will always pick up from where the query left off. - **key.deserializer**: Keys are always deserialized as byte arrays with ByteArrayDeserializer. Use DataFrame operations to explicitly deserialize the keys. - **value.deserializer**: Values are always deserialized as byte arrays with ByteArrayDeserializer. Use DataFrame operations to explicitly deserialize the values. - **key.serializer**: Keys are always serialized with ByteArraySerializer or StringSerializer. Use DataFrame operations to explicitly serialize the keys into either strings or byte arrays. - **value.serializer**: values are always serialized with ByteArraySerializer or StringSerializer. Use DataFrame operations to explicitly serialize the values into either strings or byte arrays. - **enable.auto.commit**: Kafka source doesn't commit any offset. - **interceptor.classes**: Kafka source always read keys and values as byte arrays. It's not safe to use ConsumerInterceptor as it may break the query. ## Deploying As with any Spark applications, spark-submit is used to launch your application. spark-sql-kafka-0-10_2.12 and its dependencies can be directly added to spark-submit using --packages, such as, ./bin/spark-submit --packages org.apache.spark:spark-sql-kafka-0-10_2.12:3.0.0-preview ... For experimenting on spark-shell, you can also use --packages to add spark-sql-kafka-0-10_2.12 and its dependencies directly, ./bin/spark-shell --packages org.apache.spark:spark-sql-kafka-0-10_2.12:3.0.0-preview ... See [Application Submission Guide](submitting-applications.html) for more details about submitting applications with external dependencies. ## Security Kafka 0.9.0.0 introduced several features that increases security in a cluster. For detailed description about these possibilities, see [Kafka security docs](http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html#security). It's worth noting that security is optional and turned off by default. Spark supports the following ways to authenticate against Kafka cluster: - **Delegation token (introduced in Kafka broker 1.1.0)** - **JAAS login configuration** ### Delegation token This way the application can be configured via Spark parameters and may not need JAAS login configuration (Spark can use Kafka's dynamic JAAS configuration feature). For further information about delegation tokens, see [Kafka delegation token docs](http://kafka.apache.org/documentation/#security_delegation_token). The process is initiated by Spark's Kafka delegation token provider. When spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.auth.bootstrap.servers is set, Spark considers the following log in options, in order of preference: - **JAAS login configuration**, please see example below. - **Keytab file**, such as, ./bin/spark-submit \ --keytab \ --principal \ --conf spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.auth.bootstrap.servers= \ ... - **Kerberos credential cache**, such as, ./bin/spark-submit \ --conf spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.auth.bootstrap.servers= \ ... The Kafka delegation token provider can be turned off by setting spark.security.credentials.kafka.enabled to false (default: true). Spark can be configured to use the following authentication protocols to obtain token (it must match with Kafka broker configuration): - **SASL SSL (default)** - **SSL** - **SASL PLAINTEXT (for testing)** After obtaining delegation token successfully, Spark distributes it across nodes and renews it accordingly. Delegation token uses SCRAM login module for authentication and because of that the appropriate spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.sasl.token.mechanism (default: SCRAM-SHA-512) has to be configured. Also, this parameter must match with Kafka broker configuration. When delegation token is available on an executor Spark considers the following log in options, in order of preference: - **JAAS login configuration**, please see example below. - **Delegation token**, please see spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.target.bootstrap.servers.regex parameter for further details. When none of the above applies then unsecure connection assumed. #### Configuration Delegation tokens can be obtained from multiple clusters and ${cluster} is an arbitrary unique identifier which helps to group different configurations.
Property NameDefaultMeaning
spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.auth.bootstrap.servers None A list of coma separated host/port pairs to use for establishing the initial connection to the Kafka cluster. For further details please see Kafka documentation. Only used to obtain delegation token. spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.target.bootstrap.servers.regex .* Regular expression to match against the bootstrap.servers config for sources and sinks in the application. If a server address matches this regex, the delegation token obtained from the respective bootstrap servers will be used when connecting. If multiple clusters match the address, an exception will be thrown and the query won't be started. Kafka's secure and unsecure listeners are bound to different ports. When both used the secure listener port has to be part of the regular expression.
spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.security.protocol SASL_SSL Protocol used to communicate with brokers. For further details please see Kafka documentation. Protocol is applied on all the sources and sinks as default where bootstrap.servers config matches (for further details please see spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.target.bootstrap.servers.regex), and can be overridden by setting kafka.security.protocol on the source or sink.
spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.sasl.kerberos.service.name kafka The Kerberos principal name that Kafka runs as. This can be defined either in Kafka's JAAS config or in Kafka's config. For further details please see Kafka documentation. Only used to obtain delegation token. spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.ssl.truststore.location None The location of the trust store file. For further details please see Kafka documentation. Only used to obtain delegation token.
spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.ssl.truststore.password None The store password for the trust store file. This is optional and only needed if spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.ssl.truststore.location is configured. For further details please see Kafka documentation. Only used to obtain delegation token.
spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.ssl.keystore.location None The location of the key store file. This is optional for client and can be used for two-way authentication for client. For further details please see Kafka documentation. Only used to obtain delegation token. spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.ssl.keystore.password None The store password for the key store file. This is optional and only needed if spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.ssl.keystore.location is configured. For further details please see Kafka documentation. Only used to obtain delegation token. spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.ssl.key.password None The password of the private key in the key store file. This is optional for client. For further details please see Kafka documentation. Only used to obtain delegation token.
spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.sasl.token.mechanism SCRAM-SHA-512 SASL mechanism used for client connections with delegation token. Because SCRAM login module used for authentication a compatible mechanism has to be set here. For further details please see Kafka documentation (sasl.mechanism). Only used to authenticate against Kafka broker with delegation token. #### Kafka Specific Configurations Kafka's own configurations can be set with kafka. prefix, e.g, --conf spark.kafka.clusters.${cluster}.kafka.retries=1. For possible Kafka parameters, see [Kafka adminclient config docs](http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html#adminclientconfigs). #### Caveats - Obtaining delegation token for proxy user is not yet supported ([KAFKA-6945](https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/KAFKA-6945)). ### JAAS login configuration JAAS login configuration must placed on all nodes where Spark tries to access Kafka cluster. This provides the possibility to apply any custom authentication logic with a higher cost to maintain. This can be done several ways. One possibility is to provide additional JVM parameters, such as, ./bin/spark-submit \ --driver-java-options "-Djava.security.auth.login.config=/path/to/custom_jaas.conf" \ --conf spark.executor.extraJavaOptions=-Djava.security.auth.login.config=/path/to/custom_jaas.conf \ ...