GroupedData.applyInPandas(func, schema)

Maps each group of the current DataFrame using a pandas udf and returns the result as a DataFrame.

The function should take a pandas.DataFrame and return another pandas.DataFrame. For each group, all columns are passed together as a pandas.DataFrame to the user-function and the returned pandas.DataFrame are combined as a DataFrame.

The schema should be a StructType describing the schema of the returned pandas.DataFrame. The column labels of the returned pandas.DataFrame must either match the field names in the defined schema if specified as strings, or match the field data types by position if not strings, e.g. integer indices. The length of the returned pandas.DataFrame can be arbitrary.

New in version 3.0.0.


a Python native function that takes a pandas.DataFrame, and outputs a pandas.DataFrame.

schemapyspark.sql.types.DataType or str

the return type of the func in PySpark. The value can be either a pyspark.sql.types.DataType object or a DDL-formatted type string.


This function requires a full shuffle. All the data of a group will be loaded into memory, so the user should be aware of the potential OOM risk if data is skewed and certain groups are too large to fit in memory.

If returning a new pandas.DataFrame constructed with a dictionary, it is recommended to explicitly index the columns by name to ensure the positions are correct, or alternatively use an OrderedDict. For example, pd.DataFrame({‘id’: ids, ‘a’: data}, columns=[‘id’, ‘a’]) or pd.DataFrame(OrderedDict([(‘id’, ids), (‘a’, data)])).

This API is experimental.


>>> import pandas as pd  
>>> from pyspark.sql.functions import pandas_udf, ceil
>>> df = spark.createDataFrame(
...     [(1, 1.0), (1, 2.0), (2, 3.0), (2, 5.0), (2, 10.0)],
...     ("id", "v"))  
>>> def normalize(pdf):
...     v = pdf.v
...     return pdf.assign(v=(v - v.mean()) / v.std())
>>> df.groupby("id").applyInPandas(
...     normalize, schema="id long, v double").show()  
| id|                  v|
|  1|-0.7071067811865475|
|  1| 0.7071067811865475|
|  2|-0.8320502943378437|
|  2|-0.2773500981126146|
|  2| 1.1094003924504583|

Alternatively, the user can pass a function that takes two arguments. In this case, the grouping key(s) will be passed as the first argument and the data will be passed as the second argument. The grouping key(s) will be passed as a tuple of numpy data types, e.g., numpy.int32 and numpy.float64. The data will still be passed in as a pandas.DataFrame containing all columns from the original Spark DataFrame. This is useful when the user does not want to hardcode grouping key(s) in the function.

>>> df = spark.createDataFrame(
...     [(1, 1.0), (1, 2.0), (2, 3.0), (2, 5.0), (2, 10.0)],
...     ("id", "v"))  
>>> def mean_func(key, pdf):
...     # key is a tuple of one numpy.int64, which is the value
...     # of 'id' for the current group
...     return pd.DataFrame([key + (pdf.v.mean(),)])
>>> df.groupby('id').applyInPandas(
...     mean_func, schema="id long, v double").show()  
| id|  v|
|  1|1.5|
|  2|6.0|
>>> def sum_func(key, pdf):
...     # key is a tuple of two numpy.int64s, which is the values
...     # of 'id' and 'ceil(df.v / 2)' for the current group
...     return pd.DataFrame([key + (pdf.v.sum(),)])
>>> df.groupby(, ceil(df.v / 2)).applyInPandas(
...     sum_func, schema="id long, `ceil(v / 2)` long, v double").show()  
| id|ceil(v / 2)|   v|
|  2|          5|10.0|
|  1|          1| 3.0|
|  2|          3| 5.0|
|  2|          2| 3.0|